With Semakau Landfill1 expected to be fully filled by 2035, Singapore aims to achieve a 70% overall recycling rate by 2030 to curb waste generated. CDL continuously invests, innovates, and adopts leading-edge technology such as PPVC to significantly reduce construction waste. As a real estate developer and asset manager, a majority of our waste is generated by our contractors and tenants. Waste from both construction sites and managed buildings are disposed of in accordance with local waste regulations.

CDL engages National Environment Agency (NEA)-licensed vendors to collect, treat and recycle waste from our managed buildings and construction sites.2 We target to reduce our waste intensity by 8% (from 2016 levels) for office and industrial buildings and 5% (from 2016 levels) for retail buildings by 2030. We also intend to cap the waste intensity from our construction sites at 40 kg/m2 by 2030.

CDL’s contractors engaging in recycling efforts may receive incentives for recycled scrap and/or other construction materials from third-party recyclers. They may also benefit from various other onsite construction waste recycling initiatives.

Lifecycle Approach to Waste Management

CDL remains steadfast in managing our waste efficiently and seeks to reduce, reuse, and recycle our waste across every stage of our project lifecycle. Adopting the waste management hierarchy approach, we focus on reducing waste at the source before considering reusing and recycling.

Stage in Project Lifecycle Key Waste Management Initiatives Benefits
Design Adopt PPVC technology for large-scale residential developments2 where applicable Reduce waste generation and pave the way for cleaner and safer construction sites
Adopt Building Information Modelling (BIM) and Virtual Design and Construction (VDC) technology Reduce construction waste through early identification of potential construction issues
Construction Adhere to CDL’s Construction and Demolition Waste Policy since 2009 for the adoption of sustainable construction practices Increase use of sustainable products by contractors and improved recycling rates for construction waste
Identify materials for reuse or recycling with reference to BCA’s Demolition Protocol Reduce waste generation and associated costs required to re-purchase materials
Reuse furnishings in our show flats, wherever the design or theme permits
Operation of Assets Implement recycling programmes for light bulbs, paper, plastic, aluminium cans, etc Divert waste from landfill
Introduce recycling programmes for our corporate office and managed buildings, where relevant
Pilot food waste systems for segregation and onsite treatment

Waste Reduction Performance

In line with the principles of circular economy, our holistic EHS management system framework ensures regular review of our waste minimisation efforts and recycling initiatives across all of our properties.

In 2022, general, non-hazardous waste generation remained consistent for corporate office and managed buildings compared to 2021, due to the stabilisation of office and retail operations.

In the same year, about 594 tonnes of recyclable waste were collected from our managed buildings, of which 91% was paper. Since 2017, we have engaged tenants across all managed buildings to participate in our paper recycling programme. At our retail properties, recycling bins and facilities are provided to encourage the recycling of paper, plastic and metal by shoppers and tenants. In 2022, City Square Mall reported a recycling rate of 23.4%, which is above the national rate of 12% for large malls.3 Out of 540 tonnes of recyclable waste, 17 tonnes were attributed to food waste composted.

In 2022, construction waste disposed at all CDL active construction sites amounted to 3,203 tonnes, with a waste intensity of 36.2 kg/m2. This is lower than the waste intensity in 2021 due to more GFA constructed in 2022. Amongst the waste recycled by CDL’s construction sites in 2022, 0.3% was wood, 2.2% was steel and the remaining was mixed and demolition waste.

1 General waste is sent to the waste-to-energy incineration plant, where energy is generated. The resulting incinerated ash is then transported to our only landfill, Semakau Island, for disposal.
2 CDL generates negligible hazardous waste from our operations.
3 The latest publicly available recycling rate for large malls in Singapore is 12% in 2020 as per NEA reported findings from the 2021 Mandatory Waste Reporting Exercise.


Waste generated is based on the weight of waste that CDL directs to recovery and disposal.
Waste tonnage reported is based on information provided by engaged waste collectors and recyclers. Should information be unavailable, the tonnage of general and recyclable waste is estimated based on data extrapolated from one week of weighing, or as advised by the waste collector.
Waste recycled for CDL Corporate Office is reported from 2019 onwards.
Waste disposal figures for CDL Managed Buildings have been restated to remove corporate office waste disposal quantities as they are reported separately in this report.
^ The values for waste disposed and waste recycled from 2018 to 2021 were adjusted to incorporate recycling values provided by the waste vendor for the various construction sites in the respective years.


Waste intensity figures for CDL active construction sites are for incinerated waste.